Case Studies: Introduction

We chose to use case studies for our research. These in-depth investigations provide a more systematic understanding of how code regulates than the anecdotal accounts of code in the current literature. This page contains links to five of our case studies. They are:


The development of Apache by the open source movement. Apache is the most widely used web server.

Click here to download Apache.pdf.


Netscape's incorporation of the cookies technology into their web browser. Cookies are a technology that allows web sites to gather information about their visitors.

Click here to download Cookies.pdf.


The development of the finger command, which reveals information about people on a computer network.

Click here to download Finger.pdf.

NCSA Mosaic

The development of the first popular web browser, NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Mosaic, within a university.

Click here to download NCSAmosaic.pdf.


The development of the Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) by the World Wide Web Consortium. PICS is a standard for labeling web pages for the purpose of limiting access to inappropriate material by minors.

Click here to download PICS.pdf.